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ITSReviewAnnual2015

 Figure 2: Active traffic management pilot features www.its-ukreview.org 47 basic premise being that if, as a road became congested, vehicles could be slowed down then the point at which the flow breaks down could be delayed or prevented. Driver behaviour studies indicated that in speed limits would need to be mandatory and enforceable in order to achieve the compliance levels needed to make this work. New skills in non-engineering subjects like stakeholder management, driver behaviour, network operations and operational safety were needed alongside the traditional engineering and project management disciplines. The Controlled Motorway proved to be a success, significantly reducing congestion and improving the reliability of journeys alongside a 15% reduction in personal injury accidents. Another tangible measure of success was the change in driver behaviour. Motorists soon learned that the apparently counter-intuitive message “slow down and you’ll arrive quicker“ was true. They found that by complying with the variable speed limits, their journeys were better and less stressful. Understanding and influencing drivers A new set of ‘softer’ skills had entered the arena and proven, not just to be useful, but essential if these new ways of managing traffic and operating networks were to be successful. The next step from understanding how drivers might behave in certain circumstances was to consider how behaviour could be influenced to achieve the desired outcomes. Greater prominence was given to the use of driver simulators alongside surveys, focus groups and other more pyschology related tools, analysis and skills. Understanding how drivers might react to signs, signals, and other features was starting to shape thinking and safety was becoming a much wider and complex topic than developing standards for engineering-led aspects of a road such as alignment, skid resistance, visibility. The controlled motorway introduced a controlled environment, a driving experience where the driver felt that the control measures were enabling a safe and reliable journey. Once that level of control was achieved and positive outcomes demonstrated, what else could be achieved? Operational Regimes The concept of an operational regime followed as a natural consequence – where a combination of technology, infrastructure and operational procedures could be used to influence or control driver behaviour to achieve a desired outcome. The first application in England was the Active Traffic Management (ATM) Pilot on the M42 motorway – where the operational regimes identified were: ■ Normal motorway operation; ■ Congestion management: • Controlled Motorway – using variable speed limits; • Hard shoulder running – using the hard shoulder as an additional lane, when needed. ■ Incident management: • Controlled Motorway; • Hard shoulder running. 〉〉


ITSReviewAnnual2015
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