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ITSReviewAnnual2015

The implementation of these operational regimes fundamentally changed the HA’s role. In addition to reacting to incidents and managing traffic the HA staff in the Regional Control Centre (RCC) were now expected to open the hard shoulder to traffic on the basis that it was safe to do so. The RCC staff therefore needed to verify that the overall system (people, technology and infrastructure) was capable of providing a safe means of opening the hard shoulder. This needed a new way of working and thinking. Safety systems and approaches in other industries (rail, nuclear, aviation) and countries were researched to come up with a suitable operational model. The result was the Risk/Hazard Analysis and Safety Case approach which provided the systematic means of identifying and analysing risks and hazards and categorising and assessing them in a way that provided an overall risk score to compare against a baseline case (which also had to be developed) to demonstrate the safe operation of ATM. The Pilot proved a great success, showing considerable benefits and meeting all its objectives, leading to the UK government reconsidering its approach to the entire road building and widening programme. ATM  Figure 3: Smart Motorway outcomes 48 ITS REVIEW Annual Review 2015 provided the same additional capacity as widening at less than 60% of the cost of widening. From Active Traffic Management to Smart Motorway The success of the ATM Pilot created a desire to do this on other parts of the network. It was recognised that as a Pilot there were aspects which could be refined or re-engineered to achieve the same outcomes at a lower cost, predominantly by increasing the spacing between the significant infrastructure such as gantries and Emergency Refuge Areas. The result was the Managed Motorway (MM) which used the same operational regimes as ATM at a significantly lower cost. There was a desire to continue to innovate which led to the identification of four core outcomes that a ‘smart motorway’ needed to achieve (Figure 3). The smart motorway resulted from a review of these outcomes alongside the data from the Pilot and managed motorway designs. The smart motorway converts the hard shoulder into a traffic lane and uses technology, procedures and infrastructure to implement the operational regimes of: Normal Operation; Congestion Management; and Incident Management in much the same was as ATM and MM. The key difference being that there is no hardshoulder to open. The first smart motorway became operational in England in 2014 and can trace its development right back to the controlled motorway with the introduction of a controlled environment with its influence and reliance on driver behaviour, through ATM with the introduction of operational regimes, to MM with the value engineering principles of reducing cost whilst maintaining the required outcomes and safety levels. A system approach Smart motorways are complex systems involving: infrastructure, technology, operators, maintainers, legal and regulatory frameworks, physical environment, policy, processes and procedures. All these factors work together to deliver the desired outcomes (Figure 4). Whilst some of the factors are critical to the safe operation of the system, others influence the level of performance that can be achieved. Drivers, who are the customers of a smart motorway, also form part of 〉〉 OUTCOME: Compliant driver behaviour Belief & condence of all stakeholders Ability to vary network capacity to suit needs Operability is assured Maintainability is assured OUTCOME: Journey time reliability Behaviours driven by continuum of information Behaviour is anticipated OUTCOME: Safety maintained Risk prole of the network is understood Transition between ORs assessed Relevant key population assessed seperately OUTCOME: Political acceptability Aordability Socially acceptable Speed of intervention Role within longer term strategic view for network


ITSReviewAnnual2015
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