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ITSReviewAnnual2015 49 Equipment Specications Maintenance Arrangements Denition of ‘critical’ equipment Operating Policies/ Procedures Trac Ocer Service Emergency Services Safety Case Power RCC building availability Local Comms NRTS Power Local Comms Operating Environment • weather • visibility • breakdowns • accidents • debris • „oods • etc RCC • Operators • Command & Control • COBS • CCTV • Trac Data Roadside Equipment critical for hard shoulder opening the system as driver behaviour has a fundamental impact on how the system operates. The customer experience is reliant on numerous inter-related factors where the failure of any one factor can have a serious impact on journeys as well as the perceived credibility of smart motorways. How smart is it? What next? The success of a smart motorway relies on the people that use it. Being intuitive and simple to use with clearly visible benefits sit at the core of its being. There are some questions about how far the use of technology can go without causing driver confusion or error, or encouraging blatant misuse, particularly through a ‘herd mentality’. These will need to be addressed – potentially in a development of the Risk / Hazard analysis process – in order to understand where those limits lie as well as where and how liabilities and responsibilities will need to change. Taken alongside a systems based approach this will enable all parties to understand how various changes affect the ability of the system to remain safe and achieve all current outcomes. The development of greater connectivity between vehicles (V2V) and between vehicles and infrastructure (V2I) as well as the eventual introduction of autonomous vehicles on public road networks provides both challenges and opportunities for smart motorways. Connectivity will enable communication between vehicles and the system operated by the RNO which will reduce or even eliminate the need for driver intervention, or decision making. Systematically assessing what these changes may be within a structured process will enable RNOs to evaluate which aspects of the overall systems that they have traditionally provided (and taken responsibility for) need to change or even disappear completely. A parallel track is the consideration of autonomous vehicles where there is no driver and hence the need for RNOs to work closely with the automotive industry to understand and develop mutually beneficial behaviours within the autonomous systems – balancing commercial, customer and societal needs. The road to autonomy will introduce a number of pivotal moments where combinations of systems will mean that RNO-led aspects of the system can be modified or replaced by features on a vehicle – combining lane keeping with autonomous electronic braking and adaptive cruise control, for example removes the need for speed compliance and enforcement systems. Conclusions Smart motorways provide a cost effective, safe and proven means of operating a high speed road network. The development from controlled motorway through ATM and MM demonstrates how value engineering alongside a robust safety management process and a clear understanding of driver behaviour can be used within an overall, systems based, approach to refine an effective operational tool. It also demonstrates a logical progression facilitated by measured and gradual shifts in driver behavioural changes. The same approach should be used to assess the changes and potential benefits that greater connectivity with vehicles and the eventual introduction of autonomous vehicles will have on the operation of road networks. Thus enabling road network operators to be ready for and embrace these changes for the benefits of their customers and society. ◆  Figure 4: Smart Motorway Operation as a ‘System’ Smart motorways provide a cost effective, safe and proven means of operating a high speed road network

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